First observation of daughter galaxy forming

Using the XMM-Newton X-ray space telescope, astronomers have detected a globular star cluster that lies above the plane of an edge-on spiral galaxy and contains an X-ray source which they believe to be an intermediate-sized black hole (see small circle in above image).  They believe it must have come from a dwarf galaxy that has somehow had all of it’s stars stripped away in the process of being accreted by the spiral galaxy.  They infer from cluster’s colors that a population of hot blue stars must encircle the X-ray source along with a population of cooler redder stars.

Is this not an example of a massive core star being ejected from the parent galaxy, which is growing a surrounding cluster of stars as it begins the process of growing into a daughter satellite galaxy?  The presence of the ‘young’ hot stars is consistent with recent observations of ‘blue stragglers’ within ancient star clusters.

And could not the redder colors observed be due in part to the gravitational influence of the 20,000 solar mass core star?

Response to the questions of gmagee:  The conclusion that this source originated from an incoming dwarf galaxy that has had its stars tidally stripped away is largely incorrect for no stream of stripped away stars is evident in this photo.  As gmagee suggests, this source most likely originated from the core of this galaxy ( ESO 243-49 ) through a matter ejection event.  Such matter creation and ejection is predicted by subquantum kinetics, and the existence of the phenomenon was earlier proposed by astronomers such as Ambartsumian and Arp to explain observations of active galactic nuclei.  So this star cluster may be regarded as a galactic core ejection that will one day grow into a dwarf elliptical daughter galaxy orbiting this spiral.  Evidence that galactic cores eject globular star clusters has been discussed in a previous posting (

Also the conclusion that this 20,000 solar mass X-ray source is a black hole is incorrect.  As discussed in a previous posting (, and in the book Subquantum Kinetics, black holes should be unable to form.  Particle scattering experiments have shown that the electric field at the center of the nucleon is bell-shaped, not spiked to an infinite point value.  And, due to electrogravitic coupling, we may assume that its gravity field is similarly bell-shaped.  Hence gravitational singularities are unable to form if there were any collapse.  Anyway the outpouring of genic energy from a massive star prevents any core collapse.  So, this above-plane globular cluster X-ray emitting source is more likely a supermassive mother star of finite diameter, not a black hole singularity.  It would have a very high mass density similar to that of a white dwarf.

The redish color seen in the cluster is not due to gravitational redshifting, but most likely comes from low mass stars in the cluster whose color is typically red.  Such stars continually form and grow in the cluster from gas that is being expelled by the mother star core.  The blue color that is observed comes from more massive and hotter stars such as blue giants, blue supergiants, and Wolf-Rayet stars.  Yes, such “blue stragglers” are seen in other globular clusters such as the nearby cluster NGC 6752 discussed in the link above.  The presence of such blue stars is a mystery for many astronomers because standard theory places their age at only millions of years whereas the red star population is typically believed to have an age of 10 billion years or so as in the case of NGC 6752.  So they wonder why young stars would form in an old cluster.  There is no such problem in the cosmology of subquantum kinetics.  SQK predicts that low mass reddish stars continually grow in size through matter creation and accretion and eventually transform into the more massive blue stars.  So these blue stars are not young, but actually the oldest and most evolved in the cluster.  Such mature bluish stars are also found to surround our own Galaxy’s core.

Paul LaViolette, 2-22-12

Do neutrinos break the speed of light limit? Is Physics in Crisis?

Posted by P. LaViolette
(updated October 12, 2011)

On September 22nd scientists at CERN announced that they had clocked the speed of neutrinos over a 732 kilometer distance and found that surprisingly they travel at 0.0025% faster than the speed of light.  So whereas light and electromagnetic waves of all frequencies are measured to travel about 300,000 kilometers per second, these neutrinos were found to travel at 300,006 kilometers per second, arriving at their destination about 60 nanoseconds sooner than expected.

See the following news sources:

These results call in question the validity of the special theory of relativity which holds that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light.  Since relativity is a mainstay in the standard physics paradigm, a pillar on which the framework of contemporary physics theory has been constructed, these results threaten its collapse and with it the construct of relativistic cosmology.

However, Carlo Contaldi questions the conclusions of the CERN-OPERA experiment in his preprint:  He suggests that the researchers did not take into account various relativistic factors which could alter the timing of the GPS synchronized atomic clocks at each site and of the atomic clock that was moved from CERN to the Italian destination 732 km away to check their timing.  He notes that effects such as the Sagnac effect due to the Earth’s rotation, unaccounted for variations in gravity potential along the route taken by the calibration clock, relativistic effects to the calibration clock during acceleration and subsequent deceleration in the course of its transport, in total could have accounted for the 60 nanosecond time discrepancy that was observed.  We will have to wait and see what response their paper receives.

Regardless of whether or not neutrinos really do break the speed of light barrier, past experiments have shown that high voltage electric field shocks, variously termed Coulomb waves, Tesla waves, or scalar waves, do break the speed of light barrier.  These experiments support the subquantum kinetics physics methodology (SQK) which teaches that certain types of waves can travel faster than the speed of light.  Namely, it predicts that such longitudinal waves should travel at superluminal speeds since the shock that forms the wave’s leading edge propels the wave’s ether substrate forward in the direction of travel.  So now the wave velocity becomes v’ = c + vether , where vether = the forward velocity of the wave’s local ether matrix.  In particular, Nikola Tesla in the early part of the twentieth century Tesla had measured superluminal speeds of c × π/2 (or 1.57 c for the longitudinal waves he radiated around the world from his magnifying transmitter monopolar antenna towers.

In the past some have theorized that neutrinos may be longitudinal waves similar to Tesla’s waves.  In particular, like Tesla waves, they can pass freely through matter with little attenuation.  Nevertheless, there is one important difference. Unlike Tesla waves, neutrinos are particles with spin and mass, although their mass is extremely small.  But this makes the challenge for Einstein’s theory even more upsetting.  For, according to Einstein’s theory and laboratory observation, as a particle approaches increasingly close to the speed of light, its mass increases exponentially, an effect termed relativistic mass dilation.  Also in accordance with the law E = mc2, a particle’s energy should also increase exponentially.  Consequently, according to this formula not only should each neutrino have attained infinite mass and energy long ago in its acceleration history, but at superluminal velocities it should no longer exist in the physical world.

There are two ways out of this mess.  Either the CERN-OPERA experiment reached the wrong conclusion because factors affecting the timing of its atomic clocks were not taken account of, or if the conclusions are found to be correct, the neutrinos could have attained their superluminal speeds by surfing on an ether wind produced by the CERN accelerator beam.  This is further discussed below, but first let us review the history of superluminal measurements.  As mentioned above, this is not the first time that the c speed barrier has been broken.  There have been many demonstrations of energy waves traveling faster than the speed of light, although superluminal energy wave propagation is not nearly as shocking and destructive to physics as is superluminal particle propagation.  Below is a list of researchers who have shown definite evidence of superluminal wave propagation, but whose work unfortunately has received little or no media coverage.

A Brief History of Superluminal Wave Experiments

1) In 1988 researcher Alexi Guy Obolensky, working together with Prof. Panos Pappas, transmitted electric pulse shock waves at superluminal speed.  They published the results of their experiment in Electricity and Wireless World, December 1988, pp. 1162 – 1165.

page 1162,  page 1163,  page 1164,  page 1165

The above page links are provided on Dr. Pappas’ website.  Some of the images are marked with corrections that Dr. Pappas has made to correct mistakes made in the original published manuscript which was mistakenly not sent to A. G. Obolensky for his final review.

2) Also in 1988, Eric Dollard demonstrated an experiment in which he sent longitudinal waves through a coaxial cable at 1.26 c.  He discusses this in the following video:  See especially the part 14 minutes into the video.

3) In 2005 – 2006 Alexi Guy Obolensky and myself transmitted high voltage Coulomb shock wave pulses across his laboratory at a speed averaging 1.26 c.  At 3.07 meters distance the pulse arrived 1.7 nanoseconds faster than luminal speed.  Our threshold resolution for distinguishing time delays was 125 picoseconds.  The rise time of our shock front was about 0.8 nanoseconds.  The speed declined inversely with increasing distance from the emitting electrode in accordance with the predictions of subquantum kinetics.  At a distance of 83 cm from the electrode the speed was clocked as high as 2.1 c with speeds as high as 8 c being projected at 65 cm distance!  Graphs of the data are published in my book Secrets of Antigravity Propulsion, p. 177 -185.  Other than this reporting, Obolensky and myself have not yet taken the time to write up the results for publication in a technical journal due to current demands on our time.  Nevertheless, as described in Verification Number 11, our experiment confirmed a key a priori prediction of subquantum kinetics.

4) Also around this time, Eugene Podkletnov and Modanese performed experiments with the Podkletnov gravity impulse beam generator in which they succeeded in sending gravity shock impulses over a distance of 1211 meters at a speed of 64 c.  They report their findings in a paper entitled “Study of Light Interaction with Gravity Impulses and Measurements of the Speed of Gravity Impulses” which is appearing this year (2011) in an edited book of papers.  E. Podkletnov has disclosed to me in personal communication that they have succeeded in measuring speeds of several thousand c in a higher power impulse beam generator.

5) Dr. Panos Pappas has recently continued experiments on superluminal pulse propagation in his own laboratory in Athens, Greece.  He reports the results of his work on his website.

In addition to the above there are various reports of superluminal signal propagation over very short distances such as the papers by Ishii and Giakos (1991) and Enders and Nimtz (1993).

Surfing the Beam

In subquantum kinetics, a superluminal wave gets its superluminal speed because it rides on an ether wind; recall v’ = c + vether .  So, the same may apply to neutrino particle propagation.  In the process of producing its neutrino beam, the CERN accelerator may also be producing a columnated ether wind traveling in the same direction as the neutrinos and, as a result, the neutrino velocity might become boosted by the added ether velocity, vether.  This calls to mind the columnated ether wind beam produced by Eugene Podkletnov’s beam generator.


A Celestial Explosion Warning Signal?

The question that arises is whether natural neutrino outbursts produced by stellar explosions and galactic core explosions would similarly have superluminal velocities.  Or would their velocities fall off as 1/r due to the natural outward dissipation of the ether wind.  If neutrinos do preserve an undiminished superluminal velocity even in natural explosions, this could be a valuable warning for the arrival of a harmful gamma ray burst or galactic superwave.  For example, if a neutrino burst were to arrive from the Galactic center approximately 23,000 light years away and were to have a velocity 0.0025% higher than c, as in the CERN experiment, then it would be arriving 7 months ahead of the initial gamma ray pulse and could give us some time to prepare.

Distant universe contributes more infared radiation to total background, supports tired-light models?

This article implies that the distant universe contributes more infared radiation to the total cosmic background radiation than does the local universe.

Is this not support for the SQK prediction of red-shifting over these intergalactic distances?   Seems a bit contrived to have to explain it as changes in dust content within galaxies over time.

In answer to the above posting by gmagee, I would say, no, this is not related to the subquantum kinetics redshift prediction.  The cosmological redshift would affect infrared wavelengths by the same amount as visible wavelengths.  So it should not be a factor.  What this study reports is that infrared radiation was observed to compose about half of the background light at redshift z = 3, whereas today it is seen to compose about one third of the background light.  So the ratio of infrared background light to total background light has decreased over the last 3 billion years which has led the researchers to conclude that galaxies were producing more infrared radiation 3 billion years ago through increased star formation.

However, I believe that they are looking at the wrong side of the coin.  The other way to look at this is that the visible background light has proportionately increased.  At z = 3, visible radiation composed about half of the background light, whereas today it makes up around two-thirds of the background light, hence a 30% increase, or a 10% increase in visible light every billion years.

This could instead be interpreted as evidence that the number of stars emitting visible light has increased, and be cited as evidence supporting the subquantum kinetics continuous creation scenario.   Our galaxy is estimated to have a mass of ~1012 M and its core Sgr A* is estimated to expel matter at the average rate of 10 M per year (based on Jan Oort’s estimate of gas outflow from the galactic center).  So over 1 billion years our galaxy’s stellar mass should increase by at least 1%.  Consequently, star proliferation falls short by a factor of 10 to explain the visible light increase. There is also evidence that our core in the past has ejected stars and globular star clusters as well.  But this probably does not increase this matter creation estimate appreciably.

But there is another effect arising from the SQK continuous creation hypothesis that could explain this visible light increase.  That is, existing stars will be growing in size through internal matter creation and since stellar luminosity varies as M4 for stars on the upper main sequence, this should result in a proportionately greater increase in visible light.  Let us first consider a star like our Sun.  In past writings I have estimated that the rate at which the Sun’s mass increases through internal matter creation should be no faster than about 2 X 10-12 M per year.(1)  Hence the Sun’s mass should increase no faster than about 0.2% per billion years.  Since stars on the upper main sequence M-L relation increase in luminosity according to L ~ M4, this amounts to a luminosity increase of only 0.8% per billion years or about an order of magnitude too small.

However, most of the visible light in a galaxy is produced by its more massive stars,  the O and B giants and blue supergiants, which have masses M > 3 M.  A type-B3 blue giant having a mass of 3 M normally has a luminosity of ~ 100 L and a mass loss rate of ~10-11 solar mass per year.  Subquantum kinetics proposes that a main sequence star progressively increases its mass, which implies that its internal matter creation rate always exceeds its mass loss rate.  So if this hypothetical B3 blue giant star were to increase its mass at the rate of 3 X 10-11 M per year (1% increase of its mass per billion years), it would increase its luminosity at the rate of 4% per billion years which accounts for almost half of the observed rate of increase in visible light.  A 4 M star having a luminosity of ~300 L and an estimated internal matter creation rate of 10-9 M per year, would increase its mass at the rate of 25% per billion years and hence more than double its luminosity every billion years.  This overshoots the observed increase.  But, remember, their are many fewer 4 solar mass stars than 3 solar mass stars.  So such stars would make a much smaller contribution to the total increase.

P. LaViolette

Do AGN’s destroy their host galaxies?

Astronomers conclude that star formation in galaxies ceases during a less luminous period of active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity.

Can we conclude that the most luminous phase of AGN activity is in fact destroying the host galaxy, dissipating the surrounding stars and leaving behind only the active core?

I believe that the strong IR emission seen coming from this interacting galaxy II Zw 096 may be an example where the original host galaxy located in the center of this cluster, the bright red region, has been dissipated, and only the core remains.


Response to your post:
No, I very much doubt that an AGN would destroy its host galaxy.  The above article about star formation and AGN’s is misleading.  It assumes that stars form only through accretion of dust from their surroundings and that this accretion process results in excess infrared emission.  In subquantum kinetics, on the other hand, the main mechanism for star formation is through continuous matter creation in the star’s interior, especially so in the more massive stars.

When astronomers refer to star forming regions they are referring to regions of excessive infrared radiation emission coming from dusty regions near stars.  I believe that this infrared emission is instead being produced by the superwave cosmic rays that were emitted by a formerly active core.  As this superwave cosmic ray shell travels away from the core, it vaporizes frozen ice and cometary material orbiting in the vicinity of a star and blows the resulting nebular material in close to the star where it aggravates the star into a flaring T Tauri state.  This usually happens when the superwave has advanced outward from the core’s immediate vicinity and encounters dusty regions in the galaxy’s spiral arms.  By that time, the AGN will have completed its active phase and entered its quiescent phase.  So galactic core emission will no longer be visible, when excessive infrared emission is visible.  This assumes that the core of a typical spiral galaxy spends about 15% of its time in its active phase, a period lasting several hundred to several thousand years.

Regarding the point you made about the interacting galaxy II Zw 096, sometimes called the “galactic train-wreck”, I doubt that we can conclude that this infrared emission comes from a bare galactic core.  Astronomers find that 80% of the emission from this galaxy comes from this region which spans about 700 light years.  We need more information before we may conclude that this IR region might harbor an ejected active core fragment.

P. LaViolette
November 2011, updated February 2013

Elliptical galaxies actively forming new stars

Astronomers are confused that giant elliptical galaxies containing old stars have been found to have regions actively forming new stars in a continuous process. These galaxies were thought to be old ‘dead’ structures, containing little cold gas to condense into new stars.

In response to the above posting of gmagee, astronomers were wrong to think that such elliptical galaxies would be dead; i.e., not forming stars.  There is no such thing as a “dead galaxy” in subquantum kinetics.  According to SQK, all galaxies are gradually growing in size and generating increasing amounts of matter.  The research team, whose findings are reported in the above news article, studied stars in the elliptical galaxy M105, seen below.  Conventional astronomy refers to elliptical galaxies as “dead galaxies” because they are not seen to contain massive blue stars which conventional astronomy considers to be indicative of recent star formation.

Elliptical galaxy M105. (Ford, Bregman, NASA HST, WFC3 + ACS)

However, Alyson Ford and Joel Bregman found that M105 does contain bluegiant stars, which in conventional astronomy are indicative of recent star formation; see circles in image blowup.  They estimated that stars must be forming in this galaxy at the rate of 10-4 M per year.  According to SQK, this galaxy would have a far higher matter creation rate through parthenogenesis taking place within each star and within its massive mother star core.

M105 is estimated to have a diameter of about 55,000 light years and a mass of about 100 billion solar masses.  Hence it is about half the diameter of the Milky Way and about one tenth as massive.  If its stars had a matter creation rate comparable to that of the Sun, its total stellar mass would be increasing at the rate of ~0.1 M per year.  Also M105 is known to have a core mass equaling around 50 million M, hence about 12 times more massive than the Milky Way’s core.  If this were to have a matter creation rate per unit solar mass comparable with what I have estimated occurs in the core of the Milky Way, then the core of M105 would be generating matter at the rate of 100 M per year, 1000 fold larger than the SQK estimate for matter creation within this galaxy’s stars, and a million fold larger than the star formation rate estimated by Ford and Bregman.  This would imply that M105 is in fact growing at least 10 times faster than the Milky Way and that within the next 10 billion years it will have caught up with us, developing into a mature spiral galaxy.

Evidence that the core of M105 has been active in the past is seen in this magnified view of the inner 15,000 light year region of M105 taken with the Hubble Space Telescope; see below.

Central 15,000 light year portion of elliptical galaxy M105 viewed with HST. Courtesy of NASA/ESA.

The dust ring seen here has a diameter of about 10,000 light years (3 kpc) and and may be compared to the 5 kpc diameter molecular cloud ring that encircles the core of our own Galaxy at a radial distance of about 2.5 kpc from the center. The Milky Ways molecular ring engages in radial motion suggestive of past core activity.  Similarly, the presence of this ring in M105 suggests that there has been past explosive activity of its core as well, radial ejection of both gas and cosmic rays.  So in this sense M105 is by no means a dead galaxy.

P. LaViolette


Galaxies grow from a ‘seed’ core

1) Astronomers have recognized that galaxies grow from an initial core, or ‘seed’, much the way snowflakes grow.   They conclude that the core seed attracts new stars via accretion from smaller galaxies during collisions.   However, if this were the case, would we not see a more even distribution of galaxies with more ongoing galactic collisions in the universe? Of coarse, SQK explains this from a different perspective with massive ejections of new matter emerging from these cores to seed the galaxy’s growth from within.

2) Astronomers are now surprised that galaxy mergers are not necessary to trigger the active state of galactic cores.   They conclude that another “secular” process must be responsible. They were also surprised that the early galaxies look so similar to nearby galaxies.


Response to the above postings:
Regarding the first posting, I agree that this theory that a galaxy grows from an initial seed core progressing from its center outward is in agreement with the continuous creation cosmology of subquantum kinetics.  In SQK, this seed core is the galaxy’s supermassive mother star, the oldest “celestial mass” in the galaxy that has gradually grown in size due to continuous matter creation in its interior.  Due to the dependence of the matter creation rate on gravity potential (the Model G bifurcation parameter), this growth rate proceeds most rapidly within supermassive cores.  Again, in agreement with gmagee, SQK predicts that a galaxy grows from its core not by gravitationally drawing inward nearby galaxies, but by explosively expelling matter from it core.

The finding by Strader et al. that globular clusters near the center of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1407 have a higher metal content than more outlying globular clusters would corroborate this model.  That is, this leads us to believe that the older globular clusters circulate in the central part of the galaxy near their supermassive mother star and that globular clusters created and ejected more recently from the mother star core are thrown further away from the core due to more violent expulsion by a core that has grown in size and energy output and can produce more violent ejections.

It is worth noting that the Milky Way also is found to have a higher metal content towards its center.  Globular clusters populating the spiral arm disc are found to have a higher metal content than globular clusters populating the Galaxy’s halo.  Also the disc globular clusters are found to exhibit a radial gradient with older, metal-rich globular clusters residing closer to the center.  This parallels the findings of NGC 1407 in that the younger globular clusters appear to be those forcefully ejected to greater distances from the core.

The second point that gmagee makes above concerns what induces a galaxy’s supermassive core to turn on and enter its active state.  Astronomers had originally thought that galaxy collisions triggered this activity.  If so, the discs of such galaxies should be severely disturbed.  But observations now show that there is no evidence for this.  Kocevski et al. studied galaxies as far away as 11 billion light years and found that galaxies with active cores looked no different than disc galaxies with nonactive cores.  They conclude that whatever turns on a supermassive galactic core must occur internal to the galaxy.  One suggestion is that a galactic core might randomly accrete a passing star.  But, this too is problematic.  For a single star is unable to provide enough matter to fuel the energy output of an active galactic nucleus.  Moreover it is difficult to imagine how matter could become accreted by a galactic core since even in its off state a core radiates a substantial cosmic ray radiation blast.

The physics of subquantum kinetics, however, provides an easy solution.  No, external accretion events are necessary.  A galactic core enters its on state because its continuous growth through internal matter creation has deepened its gravity well and pushed its genic energy production past the critical threshold.  It then enters a runaway mode of excessive energy creation which lasts until it has ejected enough mass to once again return to its inactive state.

P. LaViolette
November 2011, updated February 2013

Slow rotation of stars supports SQK

Astronomers employ complex models of magnetic interaction between a star and its accretion disk during a star’s early formation in order to explain why stars rotate so slowly.   Subquantum kinetics avoids this issue entirely since generally, most new matter is formed from within the core of the star, thereby not imparting any angular momentum to the star.


Yes, gmagee makes a good point here.  According to the continuous matter creation cosmology of subquantum kinetics, a main sequence star grows in size primarily through internal matter creation.  Consequently, it is able to ascend the main sequence without increasing its rate of rotation.  If they grew entirely by matter accretion, as conventional theory maintains, the large amount of acquired angular momentum that they acquired would cause them to spin so fast as to fly apart.  Thus, to counter this tendency, standard theory is forced to postulate magnetic braking effects arising from the interaction of the star’s magnetic field with its surrounding dust disk.  But a study of one open cluster has shown that 30% of the stars in the cluster have inner disc radii beyond the reach of their magnetic field, hence no means of braking their rotation.  The stellar evolution theory of  subquantum kinetics offers a much simpler explanation.

P. LaViolette

Supermassive cores present in host galaxies in early universe

Astronomers are surprised that somewhat massive cores seem to be present in perhaps many or most if not all galaxies of the early universe, less than one billion years after the big bang. The rate of growth of these cores is some hundred times higher than (condensation) models predict.   LaViolette points out that this is troubling for the big bang theory, as insufficient time would have elapsed for growth of the observed cores.   And there is also a statement that the cores (or “black holes” as conventional astronomy calls them) seem to be growing in tandem with their host galaxies.   This would seem consistent with the SQK model.


Response to your posting:
Commenting on the first of the above news items, the Chandra X-ray telescope has detected X-ray emitting galactic cores in 30% to 100% of the high-redshift galaxies it imaged.  This is indeed troubling for the big bang theory.  Based on their redshift, these galaxies existed just 800 to 950 million years after the supposed occurrence of the Big Bang.  The standard big bang theory claims that neutral matter did not begin to form until about 450 million years after the big bang when the formerly ionized plasma of the big bang fireball had cooled sufficiently.  This leaves just 350 to 500 million years for these primordial galaxies to form.  But the best galaxy formation model requires 750 million years for a galaxy to form.  So just seeing that such distant galaxies actually exist already places the big bang theory in jeapordy.

Working within the framework of conventional astronomy, this Chandra team has interpreted these X-ray sources as supermassive black holes.  But the question that then arises is how would supermassive black holes of the size observed have grown to their present size in such a short time when there is not enough time even for their host galaxies to form.  Many big bang theorists would have felt more comfortable if no such X-ray sources had been observed at this great distance, for this finding is very embarrassing to the standard theory.

One extreme example is the unexpectedly massive, 2 billion solar mass quasar core seen in galaxy ULAS J1120+0641 which is found at a redshift of 7.1.  If its redshift is entirely cosmological, this galaxy would be existing at just 400 million years after the presumed date for the big bang during the period when the fireball was still supposed to be in its plasma state and unable to form condensed matter.  The age problem is resolved when it is realized that the universe is not currently expanding, that there was no big bang creation 13.75 billion years ago, and that matter has been present in the universe for a much longer period of time, perhaps hundreds of billions of years.

Subquantum kinetics has predicted that such supermassive galactic cores would have existed in primordial times since matter creation occurring spontaneously within them would be responsible for the formation of the observed host galaxies.  Subquantum kinetics calls these cores mother stars, rather than supermassive black holes since subquantum kinetics precludes the formation of black holes.  It interprets these as dense celestial bodies whose collapse is prevented by the tremendous outpour of energy that is spontaneously created in their interiors.  It proposes that a galaxy forms through the continuous creation of matter within its supermassive mother star core and to a much lesser extent from matter created within its many stars.

The Chandra team’s observation that these primordial supermassive bodies are a thousand times less massive and that their X-ray output is a hundred times fainter than nearby quasar cores also fits the subquantum kinetics predictions in that SQK predicts that mother stars would gradually grow in size through continuous matter creation in their interiors.

To comment on your second point, this subquantum kinetics continuous creation prediction also accords with the Chandra team’s conclusion that these core sources had grown by a factor of 100 to a 1000 during the past 13 billion years, in tandem with the growth of the galaxies they are embedded in.  As mentioned in another post, astronomers are currently confused as to how a primordial black hole would have grown in size during this time through accretion since there is no sign that the host galaxies have been disturbed by galaxy mergers.

P. LaViolette
November 2011, updated February 2013

Intergalactic Gas Heating Over Time

Does the observation that intergalactic gas clouds are heating over time support the SQK prediction that more gas should nucleate over time from the underlying etheric matrix? Does an increasing density of gas over time in the intergalactic medium imply higher gas temperatures?


Response from P. LaViolette:

I would answer the above question as follows:  Subquantum kinetics (SQK) is in agreement with the findings of this study.  The observed progressive increase temperature of the intergalactic gas can partly be attributed to neutrons continuously materializing in space which shortly after their appearance undergo beta decay into protons and relativistic electrons.  These materialization decay products in turn provide the energy source that heats the WHIM (warm hot intergalactic medium).  WHIM at high redshifts appears cooler to us than the WHIM temperature at more moderate redshifts due to the greater amount of tired-light energy loss that has affected photons coming to us from that earlier epoch.  The group that performed this study, Becker et al., suggest that the temperature rise is due to the heating effect of the radiation output from quasars and active galactic nuclei.  This is indeed a contributing factor, but one that supplements the ongoing energy being released from continuous matter creation.  We must also consider that subquantum kinetics predicts that galaxies are growing in size over time and developing increasingly massive and energetic active galactic cores in increasing numbers.  So this would be another factor contributing to the progressive rise in WHIM temperature.  In subquantum kinetics the rise in WHIM temperature may be attributed to the ongoing violation of energy conservation occurring throughout the universe and this is permissible since SQK maintains that the universe operates as an open system.

The study of Becker et al. found that between redshift era z = 4.4 and redshift era z = 2.05 the intergalactic gas temperature increased from about 8,200 to 13,900 degrees Kelvin, hence a 70% rise.  These quoted temperatures are averages of their two models (γ = 1.5 and γ = 1.3).  In the tired-light cosmology of subquantum kinetics, this temperature increase occurs between an epoch dating 22.8 billion years ago and an epoch dating 15 billion years ago, hence over a period of about 8 billion years.  According to the Stefan-Boltzmann law, energy density increases according to the fourth power of temperature (E = k T4).  Hence the energy density of intergalactic space increased 7.8 fold during this period.

These temperature observations, however, do raise serious doubts about the big bang theory and its expanding universe hypothesis, something not mentioned in this news release.  In the big bang theory the time elapsed between the z = 4.4 epoch and the z = 2.05 epoch amounts to just 1.8 billion years.  Moreover since the big bang theory predicts that comoving space expanded 15% in this interval, which means that the big bang theory requires a 9 fold increase in energy input to produce this 7.8 fold increase in energy density.  So, in the big bang cosmology this energy density increase would have to be occurring five times faster as compared with the subquantum kinetics cosmology.

Becker et al. suggest that galactic core explosions are the energy source causing this heating.  However, as I point out in the fourth edition of Subquantum Kinetics, applying the most liberal assumptions it would take at least 25 billion years for galactic core explosions to provide the required energy input, whereas the big bang allows less than 2 billion years for this to take place.  So the observation that the temperature of the intergalactic medium has risen as much as it has places the big bang theory and standard cosmology in a rather difficult position.

Original posting May 23, 2011, updated on February 22, 2013

Galactic Clusters Growing from Matter/Energy Ejection

Galactic cluster with active elliptical NGC 6051 at its center. White indicates visible light, blue indicates X-ray emission, and red indicates radio synchrotron emission. Courtesy of NASA, Chandra, SDSS, and GMRT.

This Chandra X-ray study has concluded that many galactic clusters include a central giant elliptical galaxy that ejects huge quantities of both matter and energy into the intracluster region (see above image).  In fact, the estimate exceeds a million solar masses of iron atoms and energy output equivalent to the entire Milky Way galaxy luminosity over a million years.   The conclusion is that somehow the supermassive black holes at the center of these clusters commonly produce these effects.

Doesn’t this push the accretion mechanism as an explanation of these observations further out on the already shaky limb?   It seems that the combination of prodigious energy production over a sustained timeframe, together with considerable matter ejection over similar timeframes, constrains likely explanations to an evermore narrow range, with SQK cosmology near the center of that range.

In regard to the above posting by gmagee, yes I agree, the findings regarding the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 6051 definitely contradict the notion that galactic cores are accreting matter from their surroundings.  This study shows just the opposite that active galactic cores energetically eject material in prodigious amounts.  The radio jets (pink areas in the above image) indicate that the core of this galaxy is active.  Iron atoms are easily detectable at x-ray wavelengths which is why no comment was made on the intercluster gas density of ejected hydrogen and helium.  In the solar system the hydrogen and helium mass abundance is 1,000 times greater than the iron mass abundance.  So if the same ratio applies to the ejections coming out of this galaxy, we could expect that this galaxy has ejected a total of a billion solar masses of matter, equal to the mass of a dwarf elliptical galaxy.

P. LaViolette