1) Astronomers have recognized that galaxies grow from an initial core, or ‘seed’, much the way snowflakes grow. They conclude that the core seed attracts new stars via accretion from smaller galaxies during collisions. However, if this were the case, would we not see a more even distribution of galaxies with more ongoing galactic collisions in the universe? Of coarse, SQK explains this from a different perspective with massive ejections of new matter emerging from these cores to seed the galaxy’s growth from within.
2) Astronomers are now surprised that galaxy mergers are not necessary to trigger the active state of galactic cores. They conclude that another “secular” process must be responsible. They were also surprised that the early galaxies look so similar to nearby galaxies.
Response to the above postings:
Regarding the first posting, I agree that this theory that a galaxy grows from an initial seed core progressing from its center outward is in agreement with the continuous creation cosmology of subquantum kinetics. In SQK, this seed core is the galaxy’s supermassive mother star, the oldest “celestial mass” in the galaxy that has gradually grown in size due to continuous matter creation in its interior. Due to the dependence of the matter creation rate on gravity potential (the Model G bifurcation parameter), this growth rate proceeds most rapidly within supermassive cores. Again, in agreement with gmagee, SQK predicts that a galaxy grows from its core not by gravitationally drawing inward nearby galaxies, but by explosively expelling matter from it core.
The finding by Strader et al. that globular clusters near the center of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1407 have a higher metal content than more outlying globular clusters would corroborate this model. That is, this leads us to believe that the older globular clusters circulate in the central part of the galaxy near their supermassive mother star and that globular clusters created and ejected more recently from the mother star core are thrown further away from the core due to more violent expulsion by a core that has grown in size and energy output and can produce more violent ejections.
It is worth noting that the Milky Way also is found to have a higher metal content towards its center. Globular clusters populating the spiral arm disc are found to have a higher metal content than globular clusters populating the Galaxy’s halo. Also the disc globular clusters are found to exhibit a radial gradient with older, metal-rich globular clusters residing closer to the center. This parallels the findings of NGC 1407 in that the younger globular clusters appear to be those forcefully ejected to greater distances from the core.
The second point that gmagee makes above concerns what induces a galaxy’s supermassive core to turn on and enter its active state. Astronomers had originally thought that galaxy collisions triggered this activity. If so, the discs of such galaxies should be severely disturbed. But observations now show that there is no evidence for this. Kocevski et al. studied galaxies as far away as 11 billion light years and found that galaxies with active cores looked no different than disc galaxies with nonactive cores. They conclude that whatever turns on a supermassive galactic core must occur internal to the galaxy. One suggestion is that a galactic core might randomly accrete a passing star. But, this too is problematic. For a single star is unable to provide enough matter to fuel the energy output of an active galactic nucleus. Moreover it is difficult to imagine how matter could become accreted by a galactic core since even in its off state a core radiates a substantial cosmic ray radiation blast.
The physics of subquantum kinetics, however, provides an easy solution. No, external accretion events are necessary. A galactic core enters its on state because its continuous growth through internal matter creation has deepened its gravity well and pushed its genic energy production past the critical threshold. It then enters a runaway mode of excessive energy creation which lasts until it has ejected enough mass to once again return to its inactive state.
November 2011, updated February 2013