Black Holes - Mother Stars
Five Reasons Why the Milky Way's Supermassive Core is Not a Black Hole
In the physics of subquantum kinetics our Galaxy's supermassive core is referred to as its mother star. It does not exist in the form of a point black hole singularity as standard theory claims, but as a very dense supermassive star having a mass density about 600 times that of the Sun. This conclusion is supported by the following observations and verifications:
- The electric field potential in the core of a subatomic particle does not rise to a point at its center, but rather plateau's to a Gaussian distribution; see Prediction Verification No. 1 and (LaViolette, 2008). Since electric and gravity fields are coupled, we may infer that the same radial distribution exists for the particle's core gravity field. Hence as the distance between nucleons decreases, their gravitational attractive forces approach zero and the formation of a singularity is prevented.
- Subquantum kinetics predicts that a mother star's mass is prevented from collapse by the intense outpouring of genic energy that is continually created in its interior. This is energy that is spontaneously created through photon blueshifting. To learn more about evidence for the existence of genic energy, see Prediction Verification No. 4, 5, and 6, LaViolette, 1992, and Pioneer effect prediction.
- While relativistic effects emerge as corollaries from subquantum kinetics, subquantum kinetics postulates that the geometry of space is Euclidean and unaffected by gravitational mass. This conclusion is supported by observations of the distribution of galaxies in space over cosmological distances; see (LaViolette, 1986). Black hole theory is instead founded on the general relativistic concept of space-time warping. To see a critique of the spatial warping concept, see the paper by Björn Overbye.
- Attempts by a Cornell university group to computer simulate the collapse of an ellipsoidal stellar mass predicted the formation of a spindle singularity outputting infinite amounts of energy and resulting in the complete destruction of the physical universe. Since the universe is still here, we must conclude that collapses into black holes do not occur in Nature.
- If our Galaxy's 4.3 million solar mass core were a black hole, standard theory states that it should have a Schwarzchild radius of 13.3 million kilometers, which due to gravitational lensing would appear to have a radius of about 69 million kilometers, or over 90 times the Sun's radius. According to black hole theory, light rays should be unable to radiate outward from within this critical radius. However, recently reported radio telescope observations have shown that, to the limits of the telescope's resolution, Sgr A* is emitting radiation from a radius measuring less than 19.5 million kilometers (less than 28 solar radii), which lies well within its gravitationally lensed Schwarzchild event horizon. The fact that we see this radiation indicates that Sgr A* cannot be a black hole and that the predictions of general relativity are flawed. The possibility that this emission might come from outside the event horizon is ruled out by the fact that no orbital motion has been detected in this radio source. For a further discussion of this, see the following Starburst subquantum kinetics forum posting.
Unlike a conventional black hole, a mother star does not need to swallow matter in order to generate its enormous energy eflux. Rather, both energy and matter are spontaneously created within its depths and the ensuing outward energy flux prevents the star's mass from unrestrained collapse (see above). For evidence that galactic cores are not powered by dust/gas accretion and that galaxies continuously grow in size through matter creation and expulsion from their centers, see Prediction Verification No. 7, 8, and 10. Regarding concerns of First Law violation, see the next page below.
According to subquantum kinetics, Sgr A* is estimated to have a radius of about 21.6 solar radii which would give it an average density of 600 grams per cubic centimeter, or in other words, 600 times the density of water (LaViolette, Subquantum Kinetics, 2012). This radius is greater than the actual Schwarzchild radius. But even if the mother star's radius had been smaller than this limit, light still would have been able to escape from its surface, although this light would be redshifted due to the gravitational redshift effect. At its estimated radius, Sgr A* would have a gravitational redshift of 45%.
In subquantum kinetics, the velocity of light decreases with increasingly negative values of gravity potential. So, light rays originating from the surface of a mother star would initially be traveling far slower than the free space velocity of light measured in the Earth's vicinity. As they proceeded outward and emerged from the mother star's gravity well, their velocity would progressively increase toward our local value and this would correspondingly cause the wavelength of the photons to redshift, identified as the gravitational redshift. This is why emission line radiation coming from the surface of a white dwarf is seen to be redshifted. The same phenomenon is seen in radiation emerging from the cores of active galaxies, something that is especially evident in the anomalously large redshifts of quasars. This gravity-induced frequency shift effect has been observed near the Earth as an altitude dependent frequency shift effect, and is termed the Mosbauer effect.
There is no warping of space-time around a celestial body; space remains Euclidean. Light bends when grazing the surface of a star because the star's gravity field creates a light velocity gradient across the photon. Because the photon's speed is slower on the side nearest the star, its trajectory bends or refracts around the star. This light-velocity effect is closely associated with the above mentioned gravitational redshift effect.
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