The Reality of Overunity Generators:
Evidence for an Open-System Universe
Essay by Paul A. LaViolette
© Paul LaViolette, 2013
There are two energy generation processes that operate in the universe: conservative energy generation and nonconservative energy generation. Standard physics recognizes only one of these sources, conservative energy generation. But in doing so it leaves a large number of observed energy generation phenomena unexplained, as for example overunity generators that produce energy without consuming fuel. Let us review these two classes of technologies and start first with the conventional technologies that are currently sanctioned by society.
Conservative Energy Generation Processes
Conservative energy generation processes are processes that are fuel burning, where a material in a low entropy state (high potential energy) is converted into a high entropy state (low potential energy) with the release of energy or production of work. There are a large number of examples that one can point to that fit in this category:
• Fossil fuel combustion
• Rocket propulsion
• Nuclear fission
• Nuclear fusion
• Low energy nuclear transmutation
• Solar energy
• Geothermal energy
• Energy from subground state electron orbit transitions
The paragraphs below summarize some examples of the energy conserving transformation processes that power such modes of energy generation. Since these are familiar to many, some may want to skip this section and go on to the next page which presents a novel explanation of the origin of energy powering overunity (nonconservative) energy generators.
In the case of fossil fuel combustion, fuels such as wood, coal, oil, natural gas, or gasoline, (having high chemical potential energy) is converted through oxidation into water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and a host of atmospheric pollutants, all of which are reaction by-products having low chemical potential energy, and to release low entropy heat dissipated to the environment. In the case of rocket propulsion, a fuel such as liquid hydrogen and oxidizer such as liquid oxygen, having a high chemical potential energy, is ignited to produce water vapor, which has a low chemical potential energy, and to as a consequence release a copious amount of low entropy heat and mechanical energy. In the case of nuclear energy, a nuclear fuel such as uranium-235 which has a high nuclear potential energy, is triggered by neutron bombardment to convert into barium-144 and krypton-89, which have low nuclear potential energies, and to release high energy neutrons and gamma rays which collide and degrade into low entropy heat. Both thermonuclear fusion and low energy nuclear transmutation would also be energy conserving. In the case of the Rossi/Defkalion cold fusion device, higher potential energy nickel isotopes become converted into isotopes of copper along with the release of some gamma ray radiation. In the case of solar energy, photovoltaic conversion for example, sunlight radiation which comes from a low entropy, high temperature source, the Sun, is converted into low entropy heat and electric voltage potential. In the case of geothermal energy, geothermal heat at a high temperature, low entropy state is radiated to the environment as low entropy heat.
Another conservative energy generation process involves energy derived from electron orbit transitions in the hydrogen atom where orbital electrons are induced to drop to subground energy states. Examples of this are the water heaters produced by Randall Mills and his BlackLight Corporation and by C. Eccles and the EcoWatts Corp. This is a phenomenon whose explanation lies outside of standard physics since standard theory maintains that there are no orbital states in hydrogen below the Bohr orbit ground state. However, various theories do predict the existence of these subground energy states, the subquantum kinetics physics methodology being one such theory. So the energy released in such devices may be attributed to energy conserving transitions where electrons jump to such lower orbital levels the energy difference being release from the hydrogen atom through collisional excitation of catalytic molecules dissolved in the water solution.
All of these processes are energy conserving in that energy in equals energy out. That is, the change in energy potential when the fuel is converted into lower potential reaction by-products is equal to the resulting mechanical energy and dispersed heat energy. If this entropy increasing process is harnessed to produce useful work, then the energy of the work produced must also be included in the energy-out side of the equation. In the case of solar and geothermal, the energy embodied in the high temperature source, either the Sun or geothermal water, is equal to the energy content of the low temperature dispersed heat energy, along with any mechanical or electric power output that is produced. All of these processes obey the first and second laws of thermodynamics and Newton's third law. They all tap into a pre-existing fuel source such as wood, oil, nuclear fuel, the Sun, the Earth's radiating energy, etc. In these cases, if the fuel is naturally existing, it must be mined, and often it must be refined. Solar energy mining involves simply exposure to the Sun. Geothermal mining involves drilling for geothermally heated water. In the case of rocket propulsion, the fuel must be fabricated using the energy of one of these other sources for its preparation.
All of these conservative energy generation processes have explanations that lie within the theoretical framework of standard physics and chemistry and hence they are understood and supported by standard physicists and chemists and sanctioned by governments. They, however, are expensive to harness and many of them pollute the environment. Even solar power production, if not done appropriately, can be said to aesthetically pollute the environment through the construction of fields of solar arrays that disrupt the beauty of nature.
Next Page: Nonconservative Energy Generation Processes